The City and Nature

Eduard Tovmasyan


Animate “nature–1” around us is transforming into supported or non-supported by man “nature-2” within the framework of the urban development of town areas. Interaction of town and nature is a bilateral process. Experts underline 4 groups of town planning risks related to the interaction of town and nature: ecological, natural and biosphere, sanitary-epidemiologic risks as well as planning and management risks. The latter is often connected with protest population activities. The magazine is looking forward to readers comments.


urban environment; natural environment; ecological impact; anthropogenic impact; ecological/natural town frame; greenery system; town planning risks; especially protected natural areas; town master plan; standard-right provision


Chistyakova, S. (2009). Gorod i priroda [The city and nature].

Arkhitektura i stroitelstvo Rossii, 5.

Friedman, V. (2012). Zachem nuzhna dikaya priroda v gorode? [Why do we need wild nature in the city?]. Retrieved from

Glasychev, V. L. (n. d.). The city and nature in Russia. Retrieved from

Kivva, K. V. (2004). Otsenka riskov kak osnova upravleniya

gradostroitelnym razvitiem [Estimation of risks as the basis for

management of urban development]. Theses of the International

Research and Practice Conference “Problems of urban development: the spatial development strategy”. Moscow.

Krasnoshchekova, N. S. (2011). Formirovanie prirodnogo karkasa v generalnykh planakh gorodov: posobie [Formation of the natural structure in city master plans: guidebook. Moscow: Arkhitektura-S.

Poluyanov, V. P. (n. d.). Filosofsko-istoricheskii aspekt

vzaimootnoshenii cheloveka i prirody [Philosophical and historical aspect of relationship between man and nature]. Retrieved from http://www/


DOI (PDF (Русский)):

Copyright (c) 2017 Eduard Tovmasyan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.